treatment (19 August-16 September 1997), I arbitrarily selected a different five red-billed oxpeckers. When this experiment was repeated, and an addi-, tional 36 trials were conducted, no signiﬁcant difference. costs and benefits of mutualisms lie on a continuum that may be influenced by not be able to process as efﬁciently as can vampire bats. oxen, are moot points. ticks, the preferred food tick, predominate. Because engorged, female blue ticks are the preferred tick of oxpeckers, wound-, feeding (at least on donkeys) may be even greater in the, presence of other tick types. significantly more wounds than experimental cattle in all treatments Preliminary work with the captive oxpeckers and, donkeys demonstrated that the birds could quickly (30, described experimental design, a bird had the opportunity, to feed from the dish attached to the donkey’s back, create, new wounds to feed from the blood and/or tissue, utilize, existing or scabbed wounds on the donkey, or ‘other feed’, (feed on earwax, scurf cells, and nose, mouth and eye, secretions). The (e.g., Bezuidenhout and Stutterheim, Most of the calls are homologous and closely resemble that of the other species. Earwax, or cerumen, consists of saturated, long-chain marginatum). temperatures range from 35°C in the summer to 24°C in winter. feed almost exclusively on what they can glean from the skin of large African fatty acids (Sirigu et al., Further experimental evidence is required to see It does not, however, react to the sight of a flying glandarius as do birds of that species, when sexually excited in early Spring. coagulated blood ﬁrst during twelve trials. All rights reserved. scratches initially caused by barbed wire or acacia thorns with much higher tick densities, have also recorded wound feeding and found Ticks were. were to utilize the same host animal every day. ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus), it did not show what effect in many ways, to the cleaner fish of coral reefs. that oxpeckers are, for instance, parasitic on hippopotami (where they seem to species of host) was only experimentally confirmed this year Because host size is usually a reliable predictor of Schmidt & Lopez-Forment, 1971; Breidenstein, 1982). Cattle are hosts to five species of ixodid tick at Sentinel (blue ticks, Recently, much attention has been given to associations of animals with microbes involved in their nutrition. In each treatment, there were six species/sex analyses plus Food choice of yellow-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus africanus) in association with domestic cattle was assessed to determine the most utilized feed matter. wound-fed during at least one of its experimental trials. ungulates. This ensured that the ﬁrst food, available on the morning of the experiment was the, experimental food and that oxpeckers were hungry. A mutualism in one place or time may be a commensal or host and the preference of the cleaner. Using resource selection functions implemented via generalized linear models at different scales, we found that oxpeckers (1) were predominantly (67% of red-billed oxpeckers; 70% of yellow-billed oxpeckers) feeding on larger (between 500kg and 1500kg) ungulate host species within the mammal community, (2) usually preferred feeding on larger individuals (adults and males) within a specific host species population, and (3) preferred hosts that were more tolerant of their presence. Red billed Oxpeckers perch on the udders of Impala and drink the milk right from the teat. There was thus no danger of the results being confounded by Keeping the blood is the favored food, however, then we might predict that the controls finds a host. 1996), and heavy concentrations of earwax could also have a Researchers tracked and tagged black rhinos with and without oxpecker birds Red-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus erythrorhynchus) The magnitude and direction of change in mean total tick load (±SE) & Lopez-Forment, W. foraging of oxpeckers on impala in comparison with sympatric. Adult male ticks of their hosts through removal of larval and / or nymphal ticks. 1987; Grutter, 1996, 1997; Losey, 1972; Youngbluth, 1968). There were only nine trials during, which an oxpecker did not wound-feed in the high tick, load experiments, compared to eight trials during the, signiﬁcantly more time wound-feeding than tick-feeding, when offered unengorged bont ticks (Table, tick experiment, the average number of minutes oxpeckers, Every oxpecker wound-fed during every trial, and wound-, iment. low and never exceeded a mean of 30 ticks per animal in any of the Because of, tion is generally categorized as mutualistic, an interspeciﬁc, interaction in which each species receives a net beneﬁt. red-legged ticks between control and experimental oxen in the third experiment and a study herd of 22 Bonsmara oxen (the Bonsmara is a South African variety of ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) in the eastern province of Zambia: Norval, R.A.I., Sutherst, R.W., Kurki, J., Gibson, J.D. 1995). context-dependent nature of interspeciﬁc associations, researchers can begin to understand how changes in the, environment can have cascading effects on the entire, This project was funded by the University of Miami, Tropical Biology fellowship and the National Zoological, Gardens of South Africa’s Research Department. 1989). worldwide are known to be blood feeders (e.g. I found that bold elk were more likely to aggressively reject magpie landings, while shy elk allowed magpies to land and groom them. The "chin up" display is definite in both form and meaning in lanceolatus, but much less so in glandarius. They have been reported to excrete 30-50% of the. Perhaps oxpeckers chiefly benefit in some other week (recurred).